3 John

This short letter contains advice to one Gaius, whose identity is speculative (as is that of the letter's author). This letter shares some theological and stylistic points with the First Letter of John and the Second Letter. However, this letter is clearly focused on conflict within the church. Whether this conflict was doctrinal or political in origin is not clear from the text.

What is clear is that at the time of the letter there was profound institutional infighting in the early church. Thus the author writes in a way which seems calculated to consolidate support for his faction in the church. The letter contains:

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